A diet is everything a person eats, regardless of the goal: lose or gain weight, reduce fat intake, avoid carbohydrates or if there is no goal. However, the term is often used to refer to the goal of losing weight, which has become an obsession for many people. Diet Tips to Follow.
Best Diet Tips to Follow
Standard healthy diets for children and adults are based on the needs of ordinary people who have certain characteristics:
- You don’t need to lose or gain weight.
- They do not need to limit components of the diet because of some disorder, risk or old age.
- They expend normal amounts of energy through exercise or other vigorous activities.
Thus, for a person, a healthy diet can vary substantially from that recommended in standard published diets. For example, people with diabetes, certain kidney and liver diseases, coronary artery disease, high cholesterol, osteoporosis, diverticular disease, chronic constipation or food intolerances need special diets. There are special dietary recommendations for children, but when it comes to other specific age groups, such as the elderly, the information available is scarce. Diet Tips to Follow.
The highlight for the Elderly: Nutrition
|The best diet for the elderly has not yet been determined. However, the elderly can enjoy and change some aspects of their diet, based on how their bodies change with age. No changes are necessary for some nutrients, such as carbohydrates and fats.|
The elderly are more likely to have disorders or have to take medication to change the body’s nutritional needs or change the body’s ability to meet those needs. Disorders and medications can decrease appetite or influence nutrient absorption. When visiting the doctor, the elderly should ask the doctor if the disorders they have or the medications they take affect nutrition in any way.
Best Diet Tips to Follow lose weight
To lose weight, you need to consume fewer calories than your body uses. People should be advised to consume 500 to 1,000 fewer calories per day to lose about 0.5 to 1 kilo per week. About 3,500 calories can be stored in 500 grams of body fat. However, there is no guarantee that, for every 3,500 calories eliminated from the diet, 0.5 kg of weight will be lost because many factors affect weight loss (or gain), as in the following examples:
- As a person loses weight, the body begins to use energy more efficiently (possibly with the intention of protecting itself against starvation), so fewer calories are burned, and less fat is consumed to produce energy.
- The amount of fat and weight loss, even when the same number of calories is eliminated, varies greatly from person to person.
Therefore, it is difficult to predict how much fat and weight a person will lose.
The most conservative weight loss diets involve consuming at least 1,200 to 1,400 calories a day. When it is necessary to lose weight quickly, less than 1,000 calories should be consumed. These diets should only be used with a doctor’s prescription and supervision. Thus, the doctor can ensure that the diet contains enough essential nutrients, including protein. Consuming less than 800 calories is difficult to tolerate and is not recommended without medical supervision.
To preserve health, weight loss diets should provide approximately the same volume of food (including more fiber and liquid) than a normal diet. It should also be low in saturated fats and sugars, including essential nutrients and antioxidants. Diet Tips to Follow.
The guidelines below can help people lose weight:
- Read food labels: People learn what nutrients and how many calories food and drinks contain. That way, people can plan their diet more effectively.
- Count the calories: People write down the number of calories they eat. This strategy helps to control calorie intake.
- Select nutrient-rich, low-calorie foods: When fewer calories are consumed, it is more difficult to obtain the necessary nutrients – mainly vitamins and minerals. So, people should choose foods that contain many nutrients, but not many calories. For example, beans and vegetables provide many nutrients without providing many calories. These foods also have high fiber content and volume and therefore help people to feel full and satisfied. Consuming fruits, vegetables and vegetables of various colors (for example, strawberry, peach, broccoli, spinach, and pumpkin) is a way to obtain several of the recommended nutrients and antioxidants.
- Consume certain types of food at certain times of the day: For example, it is better to consume energy-producing foods more quickly, such as carbohydrates, in the morning and when doing intense exercise, that is, when the body needs a lot of energy supply. The body needs less energy at night, so it is better to avoid consuming carbohydrates at night.
- Using sugar and fat substitutes: Using substitutes and foods that contain them can help people reduce their calorie intake.
- Exercise: Combining physical exercise with a special diet regimen strongly accentuates weight loss, as exercise increases calorie consumption. For example, walking energetically can burn about 4 calories per minute; if 1-hour walks are taken, 240 calories will be burned. Running is even better, as 6 to 8 calories are burned per minute. Physical activity helps to preserve the amount of muscle tissue (muscle mass) that people have, and resistance exercises can increase muscle mass. Since muscle tissue, even at rest, burns more calories than fat tissue, having more muscle increases the metabolic rate (the number of calories the body burns at rest) and the number of calories a person needs.
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High protein / low carbohydrate diets
Hyperproteic diets with low amounts of simple carbohydrates have become popular as a way to lose weight. Most of these diets also limit fat consumption, as each gram of fat contains a lot of calories. However, some of these high protein / low carbohydrate diets, such as the Atkins diet, do not limit fat consumption. Diet Tips to Follow.
These diets are based on the theory that proteins and fats are sources of energy that burn slowly, providing a stable supply of energy, so they are less likely to cause weight gain. In addition, the feeling of satiety tends to last longer after eating protein than after eating other macronutrients, which helps to conserve lean body mass while dieting. On the other hand, carbohydrates pass through the stomach quickly and are digested quickly. Carbohydrates also stimulate insulin production, which promotes fat accumulation and increased appetite.
There is no agreement among experts on the argument that avoiding foods with a high glycemic indexing fact it helps you lose weight, especially on low-carb diets. The effect of the glycemic index is less important when only a small percentage of total calories refer to carbohydrates. On a low-carb diet, the difference between the speed at which carbohydrates from various foods (with their different glycemic indexes) are digested is sometimes so small that it means little to most people on a diet to lose weight. Avoiding foods with a high glycemic index sometimes also eliminates foods with valuable vitamins and minerals. Experts also disagree with each other about the importance of glycemic load (the glycemic index plus the amount of carbohydrate in food) in weight loss.
Some experts do not recommend following a high protein diet for long periods. Some evidence suggests that, over the years, this type of diet negatively affects kidney function and may help reduce kidney function in the elderly. High protein diets are contraindicated for people suffering from kidney and liver disease. In addition, protein-rich diets can speed up the processing of certain drugs and thereby affect the drug’s effectiveness.
Low-carbohydrate diets (less than 100 grams per day) can cause an accumulation of ketone bodies (ketosis). When a person does not consume enough energy to meet the needs of the body and does not have carbohydrates stored in the body to use to produce energy, the body proceeds to break down fats.
As part of this process, the body produces ketone bodies. In small quantities, ketone bodies are easily excreted by the kidneys and without causing discomfort. However, if consumed in large quantities, they can cause nausea, fatigue, bad breath and even more severe symptoms, such as dizziness (due to dehydration ) and cardiac arrhythmias (due to electrolyte imbalance)).
People on a low carbohydrate diet (or any other type of weight loss diet) should drink large amounts of water to help the body eliminate ketone bodies.
In low-carbohydrate diets, large amounts of weight are lost during the first few weeks, while the body converts stored carbohydrates (such as glycogen) into energy. Throughout this process of decomposition of glycogen, the body excretes large amounts of water, which favors weight loss.
However, as soon as the body starts using stored fat for energy, the rate of weight loss slows down. People on a low carbohydrate diet can use fats instead of the carbs they are avoiding. In such cases, the diet may have such a high amount of fat that the total caloric intake exceeds what the body spends. In such cases, the body stops losing weight after glycogen is used up.
Three well-known diets in which a high protein / low carbohydrate content is consumed mainly for weight loss are the ketogenic diet, the Paleolithic diet, and the Atkins diet.
The ketogenic diet (keto diet) is based on strictly limiting the number of carbohydrates consumed to a maximum of 50 grams per day and, in doing so, the body uses fat as a source of energy for the brain. There is no predetermined restriction on the number of calories, but they are obtained by consuming a large amount of protein and fat, but a very low amount of carbohydrates, including a limited number of fruits and vegetables. The purpose of this diet is that it does not leave the person feeling hungry and controls appetite due to the ingestion of high protein content and the formation of ketones, which are produced in the liver from fat when the consumption of carbohydrates is low. It is possible that this diet is better for weight loss than diets with low-fat consumption. Side effects of the ketogenic diet include “ketogenic flu”, which causes symptoms such as fatigue, irritability and lack of concentration. In the long run, it can cause kidney stones and loss of bone mass. People with chronic illnesses, including diabetes and kidney failure, should not be on this diet without medical supervision.
The Paleolithic diet is a low-carb diet based on foods that were possibly consumed during the Paleolithic era. It consists of protein, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds, and eliminates grains, dairy products, potatoes, sugar, and processed foods. This diet may be easier to follow than the ketogenic diet, as it is less restrictive; however, maintaining weight loss can still be a challenge.
The Atkins diet is based on limiting the number of calories to approximately 2,000 calories per day, by limiting the consumption of carbohydrates, but not fat and protein.
Fats provide a large number of calories per gram and are more quickly stored by the body, as body fat than proteins and carbohydrates. A reduction of just 10 grams of fat a day saves about 90 calories. Therefore, reducing the amount of fat, rather than the amount of protein or carbohydrates, seems to be the fastest way to lose weight. However, it is possible that such a diet will not work unless a reduction in total caloric intake occurs. For example, people on low-fat diets may consume more carbohydrates and proteins than normal and therefore end up consuming more calories. Diet Tips to Follow.
In addition, not all fats are the same. Reducing the amount of saturated and trans fat in the diet is a good idea because it helps to lower blood cholesterol levels. Reducing cholesterol levels benefits most people on a diet because being overweight increases the risk of developing atherosclerosis, which can cause a heart attack or stroke. However, greatly reducing polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats can be harmful because it lowers the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the good cholesterol. Having a low HDL level can increase your risk of atherosclerosis.
The Pritikin Diet is a low-fat / low-protein diet, which is based on the consumption of foods rich in carbohydrates, whole grains, unprocessed and natural, such as grains, legumes, and fruits. Diet Tips to Follow.
High fiber diets
Fiber indirectly helps you lose weight in many ways:
- It provides a voluminous mass, which causes a feeling of satiety more quickly.
- The speed of stomach emptying decreases and, consequently, the person feels satiated for a longer time.
- The fiber needs to be chewed very well, forcing the person to eat more slowly and perhaps less.
Fiber-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grain bread and beans, satisfy hunger without offering too many calories. Eating more fiber-rich foods allows people to avoid having less satiating and high-calorie foods, such as high-fat foods. However, fiber supplements, such as guar gum and cellulose, do not serve to lose weight. Diet Tips to Follow.
Many people use liquid diets, mainly because of their convenience. However, the composition of the different liquids varies and many are not of much help in losing weight.
Some liquid diets available on the market are balanced, with adequate proportions of proteins, carbohydrates, fats and vitamin and mineral supplements, as well as most liquid diets obtained from a doctor. Using these products to replace one to three meals a day can help people limit the number of calories consumed and therefore help to lose or maintain their weight.Diet Tips to Follow.
However, other liquid diets consist of drinks with lots of carbohydrates, which gives them a sweet and pleasant taste, but they are not necessarily low in calories. These liquid diets are most beneficial as a food supplement for people who are trying to gain weight.
Commercial diet programs
There are several commercial weight-loss programs, many of which are not supported by scientific evidence for weight loss. Some famous commercial diets are effective in the short term, but people often regain their lost weight due to the difficulty of continuing to follow the diet in the long run. The following are three well-known commercial diet programs that are currently on the market.
The TOPS or Take Pounds off Sensibly (lose weight with justice) is a behavior-based program on a meal plan in which calories are limited and the portions are controlled with behavioral and educational support in the form of personal and tools meetings online. More than 60% of participants lost weight and did not regain weight loss for seven years when they remained on the program.Diet Tips to Follow.
WW (formerly called “Weight Watchers”) is a commercial weight loss program based on an eating plan in which calories are limited and portions are controlled along with behavioral support in the form of group meetings. weekly. Studies show that referring the patient to WW can be a beneficial addition to a doctor’s weight loss therapy and leads to greater weight loss and greater adherence to a higher quality diet compared to other interventions low-calorie dietary products.Diet Tips to Follow
The meal replacement diets are an effective strategy for weight loss and maintenance of weight loss. Both commercial weight loss programs based on meal replacement (eg, Jenny Craig) and other diet plans that include commercial meal replacement products have been shown to be successful in causing weight loss. Weight loss will be greater if the number of meals replaced is greater.
There are several fad diets, including some above. Many fad diets promise rapid weight loss and their effectiveness has no scientific validation. Some require extreme reductions in the number of calories consumed. Others are based on supplements that are supposed to help burn fat. Still, others are based on the consumption of only one type of food.Diet Tips to Follow.
These diets have not demonstrated sustained weight loss, and many are dangerous to health. Some of them provide inadequate amounts of essential nutrients and, over time, can lead to serious metabolic diseases, such as loss of strength and bone density (including osteoporosis ), problems with menstruation, cardiac arrhythmias, high cholesterol, stones kidneys, and worsening gout.
Diets whose goal is to promote general health
Some diets have been studied rigorously and have been shown to be effective in promoting health, for example by reducing the risk of atherosclerosis (including coronary artery disease ), which can lead to heart attacks or stroke. These diets include the Mediterranean diet and the DASH diet.Diet Tips to Follow.
The Mediterranean diet contains large amounts of olive oil, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. It includes fish and birds (but in smaller quantities than fish). Consumption of dairy products, beef and pork, and sweets are limited. Moderate wine consumption is encouraged.Diet Tips to Follow.
Studies have shown that the Mediterranean diet helps to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis, including coronary artery disease. This diet significantly reduces the risk of death from coronary artery disease, as well as the risk of having a heart attack, stroke or angina (chest pain that occurs when the heart does not receive enough blood and oxygen).
When the number of calories consumed is reduced, the Mediterranean diet can result in greater weight loss than a low-fat diet. This type of diet can be especially useful for people who are overweight, diabetes or heart disease, or who have risk factors for atherosclerosis (and coronary artery disease).
The DASH diet (nutritional approaches for treating hypertension, in English Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) emphasizes the consumption of large amounts of fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products. Therefore, the diet has a low level of saturated fat and cholesterol. It includes poultry, fish, whole grains and nuts and limits the consumption of red meat, sweets, and salt.
The DASH diet can lower blood pressure in people with and without high blood pressure, even if there is no weight loss, and can reduce blood sugar levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and can benefit people who are overweight, diabetes or heart disease or who have risk factors for atherosclerosis (and coronary artery disease). Diet Tips to Follow.